CORRELATION BETWEEN VOCABULARY MASTERY AND
ENGLISH SPEAKING ABILITY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
AT THE EIGHTH YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP PGRI 1 BOJONEGORO
T H E S I S
Submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirement for degree
of sarjana pendidikan
NPM : 06123287
FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ART EDUCATION
TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE
“IKIP PGRI BOJONEGORO”
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERURE
THE IMPORTANCE OF SPEAKING ENGLISH
Learning foreign is quite different from learning first language. We never use foreign language in daily life or practice it frequently. Learning a foreign language were attributed to the conflict of different structural systems (i.e. Differences between the grammatical and phonological patterns of the native tongue and the target language).
“In foreign language context, the English lesson is occasion to bring the sample of American or British life into classroom and the lesson are about life and people in English speaking countries. In second language context the content of English without necessarily knowing or caring what life is like in English or America (Jack C, Richards, 1973, 87).
From the above argument, it can say that in learning English divided into two parts, they are foreign language context may be distinguished in terms of the effects of socio-cultural setting on learner’s language. Learning opportunities are limited to those provided by the school course. While in second language context, it is not important for the students to study or knowing socio-cultural setting of language that they are learned.
Another aspect in learning English is getting difficulties. There are many aspects that caused difficulties for student in learning a foreign language. Difficulty can not be presumed without examine it.
“many aspects of language learning are very difficult to analyze into specific responses and even where it is possible the responses are various and at different levels. Degrees of learning would have to be examined in terms of specific instance rather than with the general category of responses (Torrey, 1971, as cited by Jack C, Richards, 1973, 13).
So, the students will meet learning problems because it is the first time they accept foreign language. English is taught as the first foreign language in Indonesia when a child enters his elementary school.
Strevens conjectured that
If a regular pattern of errors could be observes in the performance of all learners in a given situation, and if a learner was seen to progress through his pattern, his errors could be taken as evidence, not of failure but of success and achievement in learning (Strevens, 1967, as cited by Jack C. Richards and Gloria P. Stampson, 1973, 4)
The writer adds that errors should not be viewed as problems to be overcome, but rather as normal and evitable features indicating the strategies that learners use. It is no problem if they want to study Eglish.
Teaching language, especially a foreign language is not an easy task. In teaching, a teacher should have an aim of what be expected from his students. The aim of teaching a foreign language is probable the same for all teachers. Them aim is to make learners are able to communicate with foreign language speakers, both oral and written. As English is a foreign language for Indonesian students it will surely cause some problems for them but it does not meant that they always fail in learning it.
Teaching English in Indonesia is teaching a language to student whose native language is quite different both phonologically and grammatically from that foreign language. It is therefore, understandable why it is difficult for Indonesian students to learn English (Ramelan, 1968, 1)
From the above argument, though students will meet some problems, teacher should do something for their students in order they are interested in English. in Learning process, teachers have to use some method which can attract the student motivate to learning English easily.
THE IMPORTATNCE OF GRAMMAR IN SPEAKING
In the 1994 curriculum, English is taught integrative which means that integrate the four language skill (Reading, Listening, Speaking, Writing) and language components such as vocabulary, structure, pronunciation and speaking. As a language component, the teaching of vocabulary can be integrated with the teaching of reading, listening, speaking or writing.
The students need to know and understand the meaning of words clearly. Therefore, it is necessary to put words in contexts when explaining them. Words to be taught should be selected by the teacher based on the three principles of selection; frequency, converage, and choice. It is believed that increasing students’ vocabulary will increase their fluency either in speech or in writing.
However, the teaching of grammar. The study of vocabulary is a complex process, so that it needs other elements of language. Because of the teacher has to job of managing the learning that the learners can do some or all of the things with the target vocabulary that should be learned.
There are six principles in teaching vocabulary. They are:
The aims have to be clear for the teachers; how many things listed do the teacher expect the learners to be able to achieve the vocabulary? What kind of words? (Wallace, 1982, 27)
The teacher may have to decide on the number of vocabulary items to be learned. If there are too many words, the learners may confused, discouraged.
In any cased one would hope that the choice of vocabulary will relate to the aims of a course and the objectives of individual lesson. It is also possible for the teacher, in a sense, to put in a situation where they have to communicate and get the words they need, as he needs them, using the teacher as an informant.
Frequent exposure and repetition
It is seldom however that we remember a new word simply by hearing at the first time (Wallace, 1982, 29). There has to be a certain amount of repetition until there is evidence that students have learned the target word
The learning must have clear and specific understanding of what it donates or refers t, i.e its meaning although meaning involves many other things as well (Wallace, 1982, 29). This requires that the words are presented in such away that is denotation or reference is perfectly clear and un – ambiguous.
Situation of presentation
The choice of words can be varied according to the situation in which we are speaking and according how well we know the person, to whom we are speaking (from informal to very informal) (Wallace, 1982, 30). So that a student should learn in the situation in which they are appropriate.
The teacher must know that selection of vocabulary must be adjusted to the goal of teaching of learning a foreign language. For example, the function words necessary for the structural patterns should be selected in relation to the teaching of those patterns. There are two kinds of vocabulary mastery the massive mastery and active mastery. In the writer’s opinion, the receptive or passive vocabulary is the vocabulary which one knows it meaning and usage in a certain context, while the productive or active vocabulary is the vocabulary which he knows and uses actively to express his ideal, opinion and feeling in communication.
THE IMPORTANCE OF PRONUNCIATION
Definition of Speaking
Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information (Brown, 1994, Burn and Joyce, 1997).
It is often spontaneous, opened ended and involving. However speech is not always un-predictable speaking requires that learners not only know how to produce specific point of language such as grammar, pronunciation or vocabulary (Linguistic Competence) speech has its own skills, structure and conventions different from written language (Burns and Joyce, 1997; Carter and Mc. Carthy 1995; Cohen, 1996).
A speaker’s skill and speech skill habits have an impact on the success of any exchange. Speaker must be able to anticipate and then produce the expected patterns of specific discourse situation. They must also manage discrete elements such as; turn taking, rephrasing, providing feedback or redirecting. The learners must also choose the correct vocabulary to describe the item thought rephrase or emphasize words to clarify the description.
Beside all of those skills, there are other skill and knowledge that important for the speaker to have, include these following:
Producing the sounds, stress, patterns, rhythmic structure and intonation of the language.
Assessing characteristic of the target audience, including shared knowledge, status and power relations of participant interest levels or differences in perspective.
Using grammar structure accurately
Selecting vocabulary that is understandable and appropriate for the audience. The topic being discussed and the setting in which the speech act occurs.
Applying strategies to enhance comprehensibility, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing or checking for listener comprehension.
Using gestures or body language; and
Paying attention to the success of the interaction and adjusting components of speech such as vocabulary, rate of speech and complexity for grammar structure to maximize listener comprehension and involvement (Brown, 1994).
THE TEACHING OF SPEAKING
Communicative language teaching using any method that able to help the learners to study based on their age, interest, motivation etc. in this case mother tongue are able to use if necessary. CLT stress on effective communicative, where the teacher helps the learner with any method and motivated them to learn the language. Teacher and student will produce learning experience that fulfill requisite, interest and special ability of the learner. Breen and Candin explain the teacher role in CLT:
The teacher has to main roles, the first role is to facilities the communication process between all participant and the various activities and texts. The second role is to act as an independent participant within the learning-teaching group. The later role is to imply asset of secondary of resources and as a resource himself, second as a guide within the classroom procedures and activities.……..
A third role for the teacher is that of researchers and learners, with much to contribute in terms of appropriate knowledge and abilities, actual and observed experience of the nature of learning and organizational capacities (Breen and Candin, 1980, 94).
Beside all these roles above, the teachers test possible in deciding and responding learning language need. It could be done formally or informally by direct conversation between teacher and students.
Johnson (1984) and Little wood (1984) consider and alternative learning theory that they also see as compatible with CLT – Skill learning model of learning. According to this theory, the acquisition of communicative competence in a language is a example of skill development. This involves both a cognitive and behavioral aspect.
The cognitive aspect involves aspect involves the internalization of plans derive mainly from the language system. They include grammatical rules, procedures for selecting vocabulary, and social conventions governing speech. The behavioral aspect involves the automation of these plans so that can be converted into fluent performance in real time. This occurs mainly through practice in converting plans into performance (Little wood, 1984, 74)
This theory thus encourages an emphasis on practice as a way of developing communicative skill. Communicative language teacher is best considered an approach rather than a method.
THE TECHNIQUE OF TEACHING SPEAKING
Teacher should monitor learner’s vocabulary to determine what and knowledge they already have and what are to need to develop.
To achieve the aim, teacher must find a technique that suitable for the learners. Here are some stages in teaching vocabulary.
To teach a vocabulary, a teacher needs to present the mechanic of a lesson and to choose the situation and activities that will keep the students able to:
See the usefulness and importance of the vocabulary items.
Concentrate on the meaning and function of item
Pay attention to the content of the lesson (spelling, pronunciation, etc)
The teacher has to present the information in two contexts :
The teacher has to present the main language feature to be studied (i, e past tense, countable noun, etc)
This is the situation the language will happen. The situations brings out the meaning of the new language and show the students how important it is in their lives.
How to conduct a presentation stage:
Build up the situational context (i, e use song or discussion, or warm up activity)
Draw out the vocabulary from the students. Your are not teaching the directly, but using it to complete the example.
Focus the students’ attention on the teaching point within the situation or the context. This will become the model for the students to follow.
Check the students understanding of the vocabulary and the situation. You might do this simply by asking question to the students.
This stage gives the students a chance to practice the new word in a controlled situation. Some activities which belong to this stage are:
Choral repetition or repeating the model
Creating picture file
Having learned the new vocabulary item and practiced it, now the students are ready to use the word more freely. Here, they will and may mix what they just learned with they already know. The will make errors since they try to make the sentences their own. They can relax because they are working in less stressful situation of group and pairs. When group work is used properly the production stage of the oral lesson can be effective some activities which belong to this stage are:
The following are kinds of activities, which are commonly used for English practice.
Describe and draw
Find what’ students similar
Describe and arrange
ROLE PLAY AS A TECHNIQUE FOR TEACHING SPEAKING
Speaking lesson can follow the usual of preparation, presentation, practice, evaluation and extension. The teacher can use the preparation step to establish a context for the speaking task (where, when, why, and with whom it will occur) and to initiate awareness of the speaking skill to be targeted (asking for clarification, stressing key words, using reduced form of words).
In presentation, the teacher can provide learners with a reproduction model that furthers learner comprehension and helped them become more attentive observers to language use.
Practice involves learner in reproducing the targeted structure, usually in controlled or highly supported manner.
Evaluation involves direction to the skill being examined and asking to monitor and assess their own progress.
Finally extension consistent of activities that ask learners to use the strategy or skill in different context or autogenic communicative situation, or to integrate use the new skill or stratify with previously acquired ones (Brown, 1994; Burns and Joyce, 1997; Carter and Mc. Carthy, 1995)
THE PROCEDURE OF CONDUCTING ROLE PLAY
In vocabulary there is continued development beyond the childhood years, adult constantly adding new words to their vocabulary through reading occupation, and other activities. The primary period for conceptual development however is early childhood (Jack. C. Richards, 425).
According to this statement, we know that mastery of vocabulary is started from childhood and it will improve to adult. Teachers hope their students will have another language skills. Related to this statement, Jack said that vocabulary expansion will be covered by the reading program. We can say this indirect vocabulary teaching where vocabulary is acquired through the practice of other language skills (Jack c. Richards, 423)
Through mastery of vocabulary, the students can understand the meaning of spooking sentence. So, they can improve their ability in English. Because by knowing a word in song. For many words we also know the sort of words most likely to be found associated with the word (Jack C. Richards, -, 431)
Generally, many teacher face some difficulties in teaching communication due to their lack of vocabulary.
During the process of decoding, they sometimes can not know meaning of some words and it’ students often cause confusion in understanding the meaning a whole. In summary, the lack of mastery of vocabulary can cause some problem in understanding a language.
During the process of encoding they may also get some difficulties is construction the sentence. Conclusion of the above explanation that learners have bad performance is due to their lack of mastery of the basic language element such as vocabulary.
Actually, is it benefit if English learners can acquire mastery of vocabulary since sentence are used as basic tools of communication with their mastery of vocabulary, learners will be able to choose appropriate words, arrange them in sentences such as write and other sentence or oral message for communication. On the other hand, in decoding messages, their mastery of vocabulary will be very useful for interpreting in the lexical and grammatical meaning of words, phrase and sentences in English. As a result they can understand the content or meaning of the message in oral communication in English.
Therefore in the writer’s opinion, it is important for learners to upgrade their mastery of vocabulary for the development of their when they decode and encode messages in communication in English.